大武壠語說世界:Rara ka maka-Taivoan

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Wp/tvx/Rara ka maka-Taivoan

Taivoan
Rara ka maka-Taivoan
Uni
Nunamuan Tainan ki Kaohsiung ki Hualian
ki apa to Taiwan
Tautau Taivoan
Pipina ki tama-urara
Katara'an ki Rara
  • East Formosan

      • Taivoan–Makatao
        • Taivoan
Patah
Hay kidi ki rara
Hay rara tu
Pukidi'en ki rara
ISO 639-3 tvx
Glottolog taiv1237


 Hamawat ta lbah kata ki rara ka maka-Taivoan. Hiro ka makiap ko mavangara ki hala, ukitaa ki Maka-Taivoan.
Itu-kuan ki rara ka maka-Taivoan ka Lalumad ti Taivoan apa.

Rara ka maka-Taivoan ta rara ka ni-pura'en ki tautau ti Taivoan, ka ni-papatimawa'ey ato ki tama-matautaux lam ki tautau ka Taivoan ka ma-using.

Rara ka maka-Taivoan ka m-anini[1]

Kakutungan ki 1-10 Puruh Puruh ki pakanunamuan 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Proto-Austronesian *əsa

*isa

*duSa *təlu *Səpat *lima *ənəm *pitu *walu *Siwa *(sa-)puluq
Proto-Siraya *saat *ðusa *turu *səpat *rǐma *nəm *pitu *kuixpa *ma-tuda *saat ki tian
Maka-Taivoan Suannsamna Sia-urie sa'a zua to'o sipat

gaspa

u-rima

rima

u-rumu

rumu

u-pitu

pitu

u-waru

waru

hsiya --
Siaolin Tevorangh caha' zuha

ruha

duha

-- -- -- -- -- -- matuha kaipien
Alikuan Tevorangh caha luha toho paha hima lom kito

kitot

kipa macuha kaitian

kaitekin

Kahsianpoo Tevorangh sa'ad

sa'at

ruha

duha

tohu

tuhu

pahad

pahat

hima lum

rum

kito

kitu

kipat matuha kaitian

kaitiang

Dazhuang Tevorangh

Vogavon

ca-ca'a ra-ruha ta-to'o ta-pat ta-rima ta-num tyausen rapako ravasen kaiten
Maka-Taivoan to patutuhen caha' ruha toho paha' hima lom kito' kipa' matuha kaipien

Uni

Uni ki ana'

Amax Tukad Rikur
Il'b-an i, y /i/ u /u/
Tamawx e /e/ e /ə/
Lutuaf-en a /a/ o /o/

Uni ki arak

Bilabial Labio-dental Dental Alveolar Palatal Velar Glottal
Stop p /p/ t /t/

d /d/

k /k/

g /g/

^ /ʔ/
Frictive f /f/

v /v/[pukakidi 1]

s /s/

z /z/

x /x/ h /h/
Sibilant c /t͡s/
Nasal m /m/ n /n/ ng /ŋ/
Trill r /r/
Lateral approximant l /l/
Approximant w /w/ y /j/

Silalan ki Uni

Sililan ki Uni Paikakunung
PAn Proto-Siraya

maka-Siraya ka Rie

Siraya ka

maka-Utrecht

Rara ka

maka-Gospel

Taivoan ka

maka-Tevorangh

Proto-Siraya

maka-Siraya ka Rie

Siraya ka

maka-Utrecht

Rara ka

maka-Gospel

Taivoan ka

maka-Tevorangh

Rara ka maka-Makatao pahaviriviri'en
*N *N -l -l n *quzaN udal udal uran, ulan rain
*buraN vural vural buan Moon
*θapaN sapal rapal hyapan, rapan foot
*tawiN tawil tawil tawin year
mutingil tamatingin, tamatigin little finger
*l *r r r Ø / h *rima rima rima hima hand, five
*rutuŋ rutong utung monkey
ruvog uvok, huvok cooked rice
*tangira tangira tangira tangya ear
*darang darang darang la'an road
*m-i-rung maong miraon mi'un to sit
*turu turo turo toho three
rikat rikat igak lightning
m-ururau m-o'owao, m-owaowao sing
*d

*z

*d

s / d- d / r- l / r *ðuha sasoa ruha luha, ruha two
*ðapal sapal rapal hyapan, rapan foot
*ðalum salom rarum lalum, rarum water
*-ðaya tagaseia taareya sidaya, cidaya east
*ðira dadila lalila tongue
*darang darang darang la'an road
-d- -d- l / r *quzaN udal udal uran rain
makdung madadaum balau heavy
*R g Ø Ø / k tagatimog ta'atimawx tatibu, butibuk south
*waɣi wagi wa'i maki, baki Sun
aguang akam river
agit ait akut, yakut belt, girdle
*S *s g- x- h ma-xangey ma-hangay hungry
goumgoum homhom bramble
-g- -x- Ø / h *-səpat pa-gpat xpat paha' four
*-səpat kugipat kuixpa kipa eight
tagatimog ta'atimawx tatibu south
-g -x Ø / h / k *taNas talag talax tara, tarah house
*bukəs vukig vukux mukuk, bukuk (head) hair
tagatimog ta'atimawx tatibu south
*waNis walig walix bale tooth
ruvog uvok cooked rice
*w *w *w *w b / m *waNis walig walix bale tooth
*waɣi wagi wa'i maki, baki Sun
mabak mawa("heart") belly
*b *b *v *v ma / ba

bi / bo / bu

*bukəx vukig vukux mukuk, bukuk (head) hair
*bixbix vigvig bibit lips
viil bin brothers
vangara manga, maga mortar
vati bati ghost
*bələm vulum baun cloud
*bukin vuking vukin bukin mountain
mavuta mavuta mabuta blind
vovoat mohat porridge

Kakutungan[1]

1 caha' 11 saka
2 ruha 12 bazun
3 toho 13 kuzun
4 paha' 14 langlang
5 hima 15 linta
6 lom 16 takuba
7 kito' 17 kasin
8 kipa' 18 komsim
9 matuha 19 tabatak
10 kaipien 20 kaitiyang
Pikakunun ki tunun[pukakidi 2]
21 *ru-ruha kaipien ab ki caha' 30 tu-tuhu kaipien
22 *ru-ruha kaipien ab ki ruha 40 *pa-paha' kaipien
23 *ru-ruha kaipien ab ki tuhu 50 *hi-hima kaipien
24 *ru-ruha kaipien ab ki paha' 60 lo-lom kaipien
25 *ru-ruha kaipien ab ki hima 70 *ki-kito' kaipien
26 *ru-ruha kaipien ab ki lom 80 *ki-kipa' kaipien
27 *ru-ruha kaipien ab ki kito' 90 matuha kaipien
28 *ru-ruha kaipien ab ki kipa' 99 matuha kaipien ab ki matuha
29 *ru-ruha kaipien ab ki matuha 100 ka'atuhan
4,000 paha' katununan
5,000 hima katununan

Ni-paki-valey-en ato ta kakutungan ka na saka tu kidi ki kaitian tu Kahsianpoo lam ki raruma ki purux ti Taivoan, mama ki Alikuan ka kasay ki papahaviriviri'an ka ma-ramax. Ni-paka-vana-aw ki papahaviriviri'an ka raruma ki kakutungan ka na 1 tu kidi ki 10, ki liling lava ki kakutungan ka na 11 tu kidi ki 20 ti Taivoan tu caha.

Kakutungan ka si'aw'awh

1st nunamu
2nd *araruha
3rd *atatoho
4th *apapaha'
5th *ahahima
6th alalom
7th *akakito'
8th *akakipa'
9th *amamatuha
10th *acacaha' kaipien

Kidi ki Paikakuan

Nanang ki Pinalang[1][2][pukakidi 3]

pinalang Independent Nominative Genitive Oblique
tu caha 1s iau kuri, kole -ku iyaw-an
2s imhu **ko -ho imhu-an
3s te

tele, tene

tuni

ta te,

ta tele, ta tene

ta tuni

-te

-tele, -tene

-tuni

**-tin

tini-an
ma-tapang 1p.i *imita kita -(m)ita *imita-n
1p.e *imian *kame *-(m)ian *imian-an
2p imomi kamo, kama *-(m)omi imomi-an
3p *naini *ta naini **-nin *naini-an

Sasolat ki rara ka maka-Taivoan

Pa-ha'en mi-kakua ki madax ki sasulat tu rara ka maka-Taivoan tu kitatay tu takaluluxan apa ka rie alay ki tatanen tmamud, ka aikakun ta "He Bo Lo" ka tatayen ki Xue Pan Qin Jin (薛潘清金) tu Alikuan:

he ei bo lo lo na le ah he

he ei bo lo lo na sai ah he

he ei sai a na ho to na gei ah he

he ei sai i na o he na nng ah he

he ei tai sa kei ki ki ah he

he ei pa ta to ke to kei kei ah he

he ei ma ku ha ku ku a ti ah he

he ei la to o tei sa ba lei ah he

he ei lo a ba te li ki li ah he

he ei ta lo kun tab a tab a ah he

he ei ba ka ba ta’ ou kau sa ah he

he ei ta li kun ta gi chin ah he

he ei tan ma o gei o gei o ah he

he ei koe i ha pa gia kong kong ah he

he ei sa lo u ha pa to la long ah he

he ei koe i ha long ping na ping ah he

he ei ping na ping kei to pung ah he

he ci koe i an ta tan o tan o tan ah he

he ei bo ko na lo ki bu ang ah he

he ei ka i lo ma lo ma li ah he

he ei ka i lo ma le ga le ah he

Ukitayl apa

Pukakidi

  1. Akomiya ta v /v/ ki caha ki allophone ka b /b/.
  2. Paka-vana ta pukakidi ki kakiu (*) ki rara ka asi paka-s'hut-en apa.
  3. Paka-vana ta pukakidi ki kakiu (**) ki rara ka ni-paka-s'hut-en ato tu Sasolat ka maka-Sinckang.

Pakanunamuan

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 Tsuchida, Shigeru; Yamada, Yukihiro; Moriguchi, Tsunekazu (1991). Linguistic Materials of the Formosan Sinicized Populations I: Siraya and Basai. Tokyo: The University of Tokyo Department of Linguistics.
  2. Adelaar, Alexander (2011). Siraya. Retrieving the Phonology, Grammar and Lexicon of a Dormant Formosan Language. Berlin: De Gruyter Mouton.

Solat to panax

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